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World's heaviest man undergoes surgery in Mexico to reduce his weight by half

Mexico's Juan Pedro Franco, the world's heaviest man, had to follow a rigorous weight loss program before he could go under the knife to reduce his weight by half.

A 33-year-old Mexican man, weighing 595kg, went under the knife to reduce his weight. Dubbed as the world's heaviest man underwent a successful gastric bypass surgery in Mexico.

Juan Pedro Franco had to prepare for the surgery by losing some weight and keep his diabetes and blood pressure under control. He followed a rigorous weight loss program to undergo the surgery, reported The Independent . The doctors agreed to perform the surgery only after they were satisfied with Franco's steady progress and motivation.

The surgery will help Franco reduce his weight by half which will be followed by another operation, his surgeon Jose Castaneda said. In the second procedure, his stomach size will be reduced and intestines modified.

"The surgery was quite successful. But now we have to wait and see how he responds to the (systemic) change. Let's hope everything goes well," Castaneda told AFP.

Franco's doctors feel that the entire thing can fail if the patient does not progress on the psychological and nutritional fronts.

Franco had been bedridden for nearly seven years and was obese all his life, but an injury at the age of 17 aggravated the problem.

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What Makes A Penis Attractive?

Mens Health

We look through hundreds of studies every week at Men’s Health, and we’re always impressed at some of the strange stuff scientists spend time and money researching.

For example, Swiss researchers wanted to explore whether women think guys with surgically corrected hyposadias—a birth defect in which your meatus, or urethral opening, is on the underside of your penis—have regular-looking rods.

As part of the study, the scientists asked female participants to rank which factors they considered most important in an attractive penis. File this under “requests that are only acceptable in a lab setting.”

Turns out women don’t love any particular penis trait. They rated overall genital appearance as the most important factor, followed by pubic hair.

Super precise characteristics like penile length, look of the scrotum, and position and shape of the meatus rounded out the least important qualities:

“Women perceive a wide variation of penile appearances as normal or good-looking,” says study author Norma Ruppen-Greeff, M.Sc.

Nothing mind-blowing, but here’s the nice thing about the results: While you might feel self-conscious about a schlong that comes up short or balls that hang a little low, women don’t focus on any one area when they judge your Johnson—they look at the total package.

So you just need to freshen up. You always look your best after a haircut, right? Researchers from Indiana University found that 75 percent of women say they would like their guy to trim down below.

Don’t risk jabbing this tender region with a sharp implement when a trimmer will breeze through your jungle safely. You want to maintain the area while preventing unsightly and uncomfortable razor burns. Aim to leave about an inch of hair – and don’t pretend you’ve never estimated length down there before.

Sprucing up your schlong can also make you feel sexier, boosting your confidence both in and out of the sack, the study says.

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If you’re looking for a natural male enhancement method, then looking into the benefits of Butea superba is a very good place to start.

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Does the Loli Genre Have Ties to Pedophilia?

GameFaqs

Lolicon: "Japanese discourse or media focusing on the attraction to young or prepubescent girls." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lolicon

According to the definitions, the comparison seems pretty cut and dry... Well, maybe not.

First, we should understand that the Japanese culture regarding pedo actions is likely vastly different than everyone's respective cultures on here. Literally just last spring, Japan just now passed a ban on child pornography. People are given a years grace period to "get rid of" the child porn content i.e. Find a million ways to store it except on you cpu's hard drive. If caught in possession of said material, a punishment of ONE year maximum in prison is possible. Not exactly a heavy handed deterrent.

Now, by definition alone, the Loli genre and pedophilia are basically the same thing to the non anime viewer. Or, at the very least, Lolicon contributes to the continuation of pedo activities in Japanese culture. Most anime fans would argue that just because you see something on TV, video games, movies etc doesn't directly cause a person to emulate said activity. The popular analogy is GTA. Just because someone plays GTA, that wouldn't make them more likely to run out and start stealing cars and murdering hookers. However, that compassion doesn't exactly apply 100%. If a person was getting sexual gratification from killing hookers in GTA, then they are off to begin with.

Another argument is that the Loli genre helps to keep the pedo culture alive in Japan. Is there any reason for Shiro, in NGNL, to be an 11 year old girl that gets naked constantly? Now anime fans would argue that is just harmless fan service... Something that has been ingrained in anime culture since the beginning. However, couldn't one assume that if you found something like the Loli attractive, you'd be more likely to find yourself looking for that same sort of attractiveness in real life. That is the inherent issue. Is Loli girls just an anime gag, or are they meant to make the viewer hold a sexual desire towards them?

One last argument is the freedom of speech angle. If the government of Japan were to come out an ban all Loli mediums, that would be an infringement on the people's basic human rights. It would take an Evil Knievel tricycle Grand Canyon jump in logic, to think that the government would use that as a way to begin to strip their citizens of their rights and power. However, the founding Fathers of America believed that the government acted in that regard. Your liberties were not swooped in and taken at once, but slowly and very discretely eroded through government legislation and policy.

How do you stand on the issue? Just an anime thing and nothing more, or possibly a genre that implies or could lead to other illegal and immoral activities. Should it stay or should it go?

Edit: Clear up any possible poll confusion. If you think Loli genre does have ties to pedophilia, you should probably vote to not have it in anime. This should be common sense, but just incase.

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Khmer Rouge terror in Cambodia

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Blogger 'not welcome' here: Canadian mayors tell Roosh V

The mayors of several major Canadian cities are adding their voice to the growing backlash against a controversial American blogger who’s behind a series of men’s meetups planned for this weekend.

The so-called “pick-up artist” Daryush Valizadeh, known online as “Roosh V,” also runs the website Return of Kings, which is described as a forum for “heterosexual, masculine men.”

An international Return of Kings meetup day is scheduled to take place in 43 countries around the globe, including 10 Canadian cities, on Saturday.

On Tuesday, Ottawa Mayor Jim Watson took to Twitter to publically tell Return of Kings supporters that their “pro-rape, misogynistic, homophobic garbage is not welcome in Ottawa.”

Watson is also asking venues in the city to deny renting space to the group to hold the meetup.

A number of other Canadian mayors quickly followed suit and decried the meetings.

Watson is also asking venues in the city to deny renting space to the group to hold the meetup.

A number of other Canadian mayors quickly followed suit and decried the meetings.

The Canadian meetings are apparently scheduled for Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, Surrey, B.C, Toronto, Vancouver, Victoria, Winnipeg and Windsor.

Tenets of the “neomasculinity” beliefs promoted on the blog include the notion that a woman’s value depends on her fertility and beauty. Among some of Valizadeh’s most controversial writings includes a blog post where he wrote that rape should be “made legal on private property.”

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Botox weakens muscles. They can't contract. Therefore, when Botox in small amounts is injected into the corpora cavernosa of the penis, there is vasodilation for the vital organ. The result is better, fuller, and longer lasting erections.

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Anti-angiogenic quassinoid-rich fraction from Eurycoma longifolia modulates endothelial cell function

Targeting angiogenesis could be an excellent strategy to combat angiogenesis-dependent pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, proliferative retinopathy and atherosclerosis. Recently a number of clinical investigations are being undertaken to assess the potential therapeutic application of various anti-angiogenic agents. Many of these angiogenesis inhibitors are directed against the functions of endothelial cells, which are considered as the building blocks of blood vessels. Similarly, roots of a traditional medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat the angiogenesis-related diseases. In the present study, antiangiogenic potential of partially purified quassinoid-rich fraction (TAF273) of E. longifolia root extract was evaluated using ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis models and the anti-angiogenic efficacy of TAF273 was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TAF273 caused significant suppression in sprouting of microvessels in rat aorta with IC50 11.5 μg/ml. TAF273 (50 μg/ml) showed remarkable inhibition (63.13%) of neovascularization in chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo. Tumor histology also revealed marked reduction in extent of vascularization. In vitro, TAF273 significantly inhibited the major angiogenesis steps such as proliferation, migration and differentiation of HUVECs. Phytochemical analysis revealed high content of quassinoids in TAF273. Specially, HPLC characterization showed that TAF273 is enriched with eurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanol. These results demonstrated that the antiangiogenic activity of TAF273 may be due to its inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation and migration which could be attributed to the high content of quassinoids in E. longifolia.

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Necrophilia and incest should be legal, says Swedish Liberal party youth wing, but are accused of being 'laughable nitwits' by party senior

The youth wing of the Swedish Liberal party has filed a motion to legalize necrophilia and incest.

Liberal Youth of Sweden said that just because it is 'viewed as unusual and disgusting', does not mean that the deprived sexual acts should be illegal.

They want to legalize sex between two consenting siblings over the age of 15, and sex with a corpse if there is a written permission made before the person died.

'We don't like morality laws in general, and this legislation is not protecting anyone right now,' Cecilia Johnsson, Liberal Youth chairperson in Stockholm told Aftonbladet.

'We are a youth wing and one of our tasks is to think one step further.

'I understand that it [necrophilia and incest] can be seen as unusual and disgusting by legislation can not be based on it being disgusting.'

The youth wing of the Liberals in Sweden voted to support legalisation incest and necrophilia at their annual meeting last weekend.

The suggested motion stated that two siblings, over the age of 15, who both consent, should be allowed to have sex.

It also said that if a person has stated in a written will that they consent to someone having sex with their corpse, this should also be legal.

'It should be your own decision what happens with your body after you die, and if that happens to be that you want to bequeath your remains to a museum or to science, or if you want to bequeath your remains to someone to sleep with them, then that should be ok,' Ms Johnsson adds.

The controversial announcement was quickly criticised by the Liberals, and several senior figures within the mother party.

Former Liberal MP Carl B Hamilton lashed out at the youth wing, calling them 'nitwits', accusing them of craving publicity over politics.

'Liberal Youth of Sweden focuses on publicity, but hardly the issues that determines our, and Sweden's future,' he wrote on a Facebook group for Liberal party members.

'Surely, you must understand that people are lauging at your liberalism, you nitwits?

'And what other challenges facing society is on the top 100-list for Stockholm's Liberal Youth? Sex with hippos?'

A press spokesperson for the Liberals said on Monday the mother party does not back the youth wing, and wants both necrophilia and incest to remain illegal.

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Why is sex so important? Because sex builds an immortal individual soul.

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"I've been dying to post this": Terminally ill dad-of-three's final Facebook message before ending his life at Dignitas

Ex-soldier Nigel Casson - who once arrested IRA commander Martin McGuinness - chose to end his life after a 10-year battle with Motor Neuron Disease

Mirror

Even in the moments before he ended his life at the Dignitas clinic, “inspirational” dad-of-three Nigel Casson found the strength to keep smiling and cracking gags.

The 62-year-old former soldier’s family told how he was telling jokes until the end. And he signed off on Facebook by saying: “I’ve been ‘dying’ to post this. Ha ha ha ha ha. Thank you and goodbye.”

He had battled motor neurone disease for 10 years, needing round-the-clock care as he was no longer able to carry out even the most basic tasks himself.

His Facebook post added: “I wanted to die with dignity instead of being tortured. Some people may think it’s the easy way out but believe me it’s not easy to leave your loving family and friends.”

The businessman asked wife Julie to post the message online shortly before he died at the clinic in Switzerland.

He never got to see the hundreds of comments because he didn’t want to be “glued to Facebook” in his final hours.

The Brit spent the time with his wife of 39 years and their three children Craig, 42, Eleanor, 38, and Rebecca, 33. Julie, 58, told yesterday how the family spent two “special” days in Switzerland before they gathered at his side as he pressed the button to administer the fatal drugs in a room at the clinic near Zurich.

Julie said: “He was making jokes right up to the point, and he was smiling.”

About his wish to die, she added: “You have got to respect people’s decisions but it was still heartbreaking when he told me this is what he wanted to do.

“He joked and laughed every day. He was an inspiration and helped the rest of us cope with the heartbreaking effects of motor neurone disease.”

The illness wrecks the victim’s muscles, eventually leaving them unable to move, speak, eat or breathe.

Nigel said it is wrong that assisted suicide is illegal in Britain.

Explaining why he chose to die now, he said in the Facebook post: “I wanted to take back control of my life and take the victory of killing me away from this disease. I wanted to die while I am happy and can still smile and not be controlled by this wicked disease any longer.”

In response, family and friends paid tribute to the “finest man” they knew. His sister Tracey Casson said: “I salute you and love you always.”

Nigel served in the Army as an infantryman in the Duke of Wellington’s Regiment during the 1970s.

He served in Northern Ireland. Julie said he once arrested Irish republican and Sinn Féin politician Martin McGuinness, who died in January.

Nigel, from Scarborough, North Yorks, left the Army after a three-year stint and then started up a scaffolding firm and a removal business.

He was diagnosed in 2007 with the debilitating disease and was given three to five years to live.

Wheelchair-bound and becoming increasingly weak, Nigel decided last August that he would go to Dignitas.

“By the end he needed help with everything,” said Julie.

“We had a team of carers giving him round-the-clock care. He relied on a wheelchair for the last seven years.

“His limbs were becoming extremely weak. He needed help with everything such as feeding, showering and going to the toilet.

“He was completely disabled but managed to keep his spirit.

“Because of his immobility and disability he found comfort in using Facebook. It kept him in touch with the world. He could still manage to touch the screen but also had eye-gaze technology to help him.”

But she added that near the end: “He was having days where he was becoming dispirited.

“He was conscious that if he didn’t go while he physically could, he would miss an opportunity.

“He didn’t want to get to a stage where he was unable to speak or unable to communicate his feelings and frustrations, and feel entombed within his own body.”

The family said they decided to speak about the ordeal to encourage the Government to change the law.

Assisting someone to commit suicide is illegal in England and Wales. It carries a potential jail sentence of 14 years.

But in 2010 the Director of Public Prosecutions issued guidelines that tried to clarify what would happen to families who go to places such as Dignitas with dying loved ones.

It was indicated that anyone acting with compassion to help end the life of someone who does not want to live would be unlikely to face charges.

The latest proposal to reform the Suicide Act 1961 was rejected in the Commons in 2015. The assisted dying bill proposed to enable “competent adults who are terminally ill” to choose to be helped to die “with medically supervised assistance”.

In Scotland there is no specific crime of assisting a suicide but helping someone die could lead to a prosecution for culpable homicide.

Switzerland allows euthanasia in certain circumstances. It is understood that last year 47 Britons went to assisted dying clinic Dignitas to end their lives, with families saying they spent thousands of pounds. Assisted dying has also been legalised in nations such as the Netherlands.

Motor neurone disease affects up to 5,000 adults in the UK. About half of sufferers die within 14 months of being diagnosed. Nigel, whose first name was David but was known by his middle name, died last week.

Julie said her husband supported the Dignity in Dying campaign, which believes terminally-ill adults should have the option of assisted dying.

She added that even though Nigel died as he wanted, the family is devastated. Julie said: “Nigel was a very realistic man and did not moan about his fate. He decided to keep a positive attitude throughout.

“He embraced what was to be the rest of his life with exceptional good humour, maintaining good spirits to the end. We are a close family and are grief-stricken by the loss of Nigel.”

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It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!

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I had vagina therapy with a vagina physiotherapist

I thought the recovery from my child’s birth would be easier than the birth itself. I was wrong.

My baby was born by scalpel – an episiotomy. Episiotomy, also known as perineotomy, is described as a surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall generally done by a midwife or obstetrician during second stage of labor to quickly enlarge the opening for the baby to pass through.

I cannot put into words what it was actually like.

She was perfect, although a little bloody. I expected to be back on my feet quickly. But I was wrong, so very wrong.

Life with a newborn is not easy, even less so when you have another child or two that also needs your attention. It is even harder when you are in excruciating pain.

The constant pain was debilitating. I was unable to walk some days and was often forced to look after my two children from the floor where I crawled everywhere. When my husband came home I was an emotional and physical wreck. I was often in so much pain I had to dose myself up on medication and lay face down on the carpet next to the blanket on the floor that contained a days worth of spit up.

Even thinking about sex was hard, it was eight weeks before we gave it a go for the first time. My husband was understanding, sympathetic about the lack of sex during the first few months, and lets be honest – also very tired from helping me with the night shift. But I’m sure it was also frustrating for him.

After eight weeks I was physically healed, but mentally… not so much. It was not really painful during sex, but it sure was afterwards.

I began to become convinced that there was something seriously wrong with my vagina.

I went to the doctor and pleaded with her to try and fix me. She gave my vagina the once over and said that everything looked fine, but said that there may be some nerve damage and she would send me off to get X-rays just in case it was a broken pubic bone.

Well hell, this must be it! I thought.

My vagina is broken! Six bloody months of walking around with a broken bloody vagina. It made sense!

Then the X-ray came back all clear. Although I was convinced that they must have done it wrong, I had to accept I didn’t have a broken vagina.

There was only one more step to take and the doctor suggested a physiotherapist…. for my vagina.

So off I went to a vagina physiotherapist. To have vagina therapy.

Did you even know this was an actual job? I sure didn’t. And as I sat in the hospital waiting room looking at all of the other patients quietly waiting in wheelchairs, sitting with helpers – post car crashes and work injuries – I worried about what they might be thinking of me. Where was her injury? Why wasn’t she limping enough to notice?

I walked into the little room accompanied by the physiotherapist, an attractive smart blonde woman with shiny black flats. I really wanted to ask her right off the bat what her deal was, why vaginas? Why not feet? But I saved that for the second visit two months later when she told me that she just wanted to help women and their sexual health. She sounded legit.

The exam was similar to a doctors exam but without as many contraptions, she asked me to do a kegel (where you tighten your vagina). I did, and she looked at me quite surprised, “Hmmmmmm” she said, with her finger still wriggling around inside me.

“That’s about as strong as I have felt…” she kept wiggling. “… And the left side is VERY tight!”

Post-exam she sat me down and told me what the problem was. I had a tight vagina. Actually she used the words “I think you have a condition known as vaginismus which is a genito-pelvic pain disorder. A condition that affects a woman’s ability to engage in vaginal penetration, where your pelvic floor is tight and can spasm.”

But all I heard was “TIGHT VAGINA”.

And you know what? I smiled, looked up to the ceiling nodded my head and laughed.

This whole time I’m walking around in constant pain thinking I had broken myself when in reality it was my muscles tightening up so much on the left side that the pain radiated down my legs.

She gave me a print out with information about vaginismus. On the flip side of the page was some yoga, breathing and visualisation exercises.

I’m not really the most serious person. The printout had a diagram of a stick figure lady, legs up in the air, visualising her vagina relaxing. To this day, it’s quite possibly the most hilarious thing I have ever seen.

But I did all of the exercises. I breathed calmly like you wouldn’t believe. I visualised the hell out of my vagina getting all loose.

And it worked!

The pain subsided and I could walk around like a normal person without feeling like someone had shoved a porcupine up there.

The problem with any disorder that is caused in part by anxiety is that you are sometimes the only one that is in charge of your own recovery.

When I was diagnosed my physiotherapist had said exactly that to me:

“I have good news and bad news. The good news is that you are in charge of your own recovery. The bad news is that you are in charge of your own recovery.” Those words have stuck with me.

You can be helped along by medication and pain relief – both of which I have definitely taken. But ultimately it’s up to you. And it’s daunting to be the only one that can really fix you, but it is also empowering.

You don’t have to have a traumatic birth for you to be traumatised in some way, you don’t have to have a difficult birth in order to feel it was difficult for you. Birth is such a different experience for us all and our own experience of it and how we deal with it afterwards is unique.

Vaginismus is often triggered by childbirth but it can also be something that was always there, something that can develop in your teenage years. It can stop women from ever having sex or it can mean having painful sex frequently.

If you think you might have something similar please see your doctor as it could be a symptom of anxiety or something else.

Your sexual health is just as important as anything else in your life. I never thought I’d have vagina therapy but I’m very glad I did.

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Age 70, and you can have the best sex of a lifetime. Provided your testosterone is high. Not? Try the Thai herbal booster butea superba. The best stuff on the planet.

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Female Circumcision as Sexual Therapy: The Past and Future of Plastic Surgery?

In Chicago, a physician with offices on Michigan Avenue offers clitoral unhooding today for $1,000 (plus operating room fees). His intention? To more easily enable a woman to reach orgasm. Clitoral unhooding falls under the larger category of female genital cosmetic surgeries (FGCS), surgeries that are reportedly becoming more popular among women and physicians. Some physicians, even those who don’t perform FGCS, see them as part of the future of plastic surgery.

The assumption is that these surgeries don’t have much of a past. In fact, there is a long history of surgeries on female genitals—especially on the clitoris—as “sexual enhancement” for women, designed to help them achieve their “proper role” as sexual partners. Over a century ago, another Chicago physician also removed clitoral hoods of women, also as therapy to enable them easier orgasms. The use of female circumcision since the late 1800s to treat a woman’s lack of orgasm reveals a medical understanding of the function of the clitoris as sexual­—an understanding held decades prior to the physiological evidence supplied by William Masters and Virginia Johnson.

Understanding the sexual nature of the clitoris and its importance to female sexual pleasure, some physicians have, for well over a century, diagnosed a condition of the clitoris as the physiological cause for a woman’s failure to have an orgasm with her husband. These physicians thus treated the lack of an orgasm in the marital bed as a sexual disorder treatable through surgery.

By removing the clitoral foreskin, some physicians (as well as non-physicians) thought the clitoris would be more exposed to the penis during penetrative intercourse, and would thus receive direct stimulation from the penis. Physicians performed—and some women or their spouses sought out—female circumcision in order to maintain (or conform to) the sexual behavior deemed culturally appropriate for white, U.S.-born, middle- to upper-class women: orgasm with their husbands.

In the United States, the first documented use of female circumcision as a sexual enhancement therapy occurred in the late 19th century, appearing at a time when the espousal of female orgasm during marital sex was increasingly seen as an important component for a healthy marriage. Physicians performed female circumcision to help married women who wanted—or whose husbands wanted their wives to have—orgasms during martial sex.

Practitioners who removed clitoral hoods to enable female orgasm included Chicago gynecologist Denslow Lewis, who presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision at a meeting of the American Medical Association in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful,” according to Lewis. Lewis had treated 38 women with circumcision, and had “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.”

This procedure continued to be used to treat women for their inability to orgasm throughout the 20th century. In 1900, Chicago gynecologist A.S. Waiss wrote about removing the clitoral hood of Mrs. R., a 27-year-old woman who had been married for seven years and who was “absolutely passionless,” something that greatly upset her. Her unresponsiveness troubled her, or her husband, enough for her to seek a medical remedy. The doctor found Mrs. R.’s clitoris “entirely covered” by its hood. He circumcised the clitoris and the patient “became a different woman”—she was, the doctor wrote, “lively, contented,” and “happy,” and sex now brought her satisfaction.

In 1912, Douglas H. Stewart in New York City saw a “fairly robust woman” who, though desirous for sexual intercourse, when the act was attempted found “there ‘was nothing in it.’” Upon examination, Stewart found the clitoris of the patient to be “buried” and preceded to circumcise the woman to reveal the organ.

Charles Lane, a physician in Poughkeepsie, New York, believed the clitoris “a very important organ to the health and happiness of the female,” and performed circumcision on women who were unable to reach orgasm. In a 1940 article concerning his use of circumcision on a patient—Mrs. W., a 22-year-old woman who had recently married but had yet to experience an orgasm—Lane noted “that little trick did it all right.”

And C.F. McDonald, a physician in Milwaukee, noted in a 1958 article that women who complained to him of difficult or painful intercourse often had a clitoris hidden by foreskin. To reveal the organ, he removed the foreskin, with “very thankful patients” as the reward. McDonald operated in the 1950s—during the height of the Freudian vaginal orgasm theory, a theory that held healthy and mature adult women had vaginal, not clitoral, orgasms—suggesting clitoral circumcision as sexual therapy did not stop; indeed, by some accounts, more women underwent circumcision at mid-century to surgically increase the potential for orgasm than at any earlier time.

Physicians, both in print and at medical society meetings, discussed that “little trick” for decades. By the 1970s, information about the usefulness of female circumcision to enable female orgasm during penetrative, heterosexual sex began to appear with more regularity in popular publications as well, with information about the surgery as a sexual enhancement appearing in books such as The Consumer’s Guide to Successful Surgery.

Magazines, too, including Playgirl and Playboy, ran stories about female circumcision. Playgirl carried two stories by Catherine Kellison, who wrote about her circumcision and how orgasms were easier for her to attain after the surgery. The gynecologist who removed her clitoral hood told Kellison that an estimated three-fourths of women did not reach orgasm because of a hooded clitoris, and that circumcision was the surgical solution to this condition. The doctor told Kellison that she would likely benefit from having her clitoral hood removed, and, after undergoing the procedure, Kellison wrote that she did find orgasms easier to attain following the surgery.

While estimating how many American women underwent female circumcision since the late 19th century is not possible—it was a quick procedure, most often performed by physicians in their clinics—evidence of its use can be found indirectly through insurance reimbursement for it.

In May 1977 the insurance company Blue Shield Association recommended that its individual plans stop routine payments for 28 surgical and diagnostic procedures considered outmoded or unnecessary. Of the 28, one was removing the hood of the clitoris. While this information is not translatable into an actual estimate of how many women elected to have their clitorises circumcised, it suggests the procedure was at least popular enough to warrant the discontinuation of paying for it by an insurance company.

In addition to Blue Shield Association, others have labeled the procedure as not medically indicated, with some being even more critical of the assumptions underlying the use of it as therapy to treat a lack of female orgasm. Feminists interested in women’s health began questioning female circumcision as a surgery for purported sexual enhancement in the 1970s as part of their larger critique of the medicalization of the female body and the feminist embrace of the clitoris as an important sexual organ for women.

More recently, women’s health activists with the New View Campaign in the United States protested practitioners of FGCS and launched a website to educate the public about the diversity of female genitals.

Similar to the New View Campaign, both the popular media and academics have weighed in on what the apparent “rise” in these surgeries means about the female body, female sexuality, and the role of medicine. Some academics have further challenged these procedures for the lack of evidence that such surgeries increase female sexual capacity and that women should feel the need to correct their bodies in order to enjoy sex rather than to, for example, change sexual positions or techniques.

In addition to academics and feminist activists questioning the procedures, medical practitioners have also raised concerns about the lack of established medical need for clitoral unhooding and that there is no evidence that female circumcision, along with the other procedures comprising FGCS, are safe. Indeed, in 2007, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended practitioners not perform female circumcision or other FGCS, since the promotion of FGCS as sexually enhancing was not based on empirical evidence, nor were the surgeries medically indicated.

But while feminists and some medical practitioners since the 1970s have been publicly questioning the physiological basis for female circumcision as a sexual enhancement surgery, the surgery today, like a century ago, continues to be performed as an effort to enable women to have a clitoral orgasm during penetrative sex.

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The Serge Kreutz diet is the ultimate sex diet via the day-long stimulation of taste buds with chocolate.

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